Resources Engines

This page lists the common browser engines:

Introduction

A browser engine — also called a layout engine or rendering engine — is the core of a web browser, responsible for rendering web pages.

A browser engine can be used by many different browsers. For example, Mozilla engines are used by Epiphany, Firefox, Galeon, K-Meleon, Mozilla, Netscape 6–9, Pale Moon, SeaMonkey, Waterfox, and others. Browsers which use the same version of the same engine should display pages the same if the browsers are configured the same, but there can be differences. For example, some browsers have different default styles — e.g. default background colours — which can create rendering differences without suitable CSS rules.

A problem with some browser engines is that they are based on old versions of mainstream engines: e.g. Pale Moon uses the Goanna engine, which was forked from an old version of the Gecko engine; so Pale Moon will not render pages as well as modern versions of Firefox.

Common Browser Engines

There are six major families of desktop browser engines:

  1. Blink: developed by Google for the Chrome browser — beginning with Chrome 28 — and used by many browsers including Brave, Chrome, Edge 79 (and up), Opera 15 (and up), and Vivaldi. Browsers
  2. Edge::HTML: developed by Microsoft, this is a proprietary engine used by Edge until Edge was redesigned to instead use Chrome’s Blink engine. Browsers
  3. Mozilla: developed by Mozilla, this is a a family of free, open source engines used by many browsers. The major subfamilies are:
    • Firefox Classic Engines Browsers
    • Firefox Quantum Engines, used by Firefox starting with Firefox 57 Browsers
    • Goanna Engines, used by the Pale Moon browsers and recent versions of the K-Meleon browsers Browsers
  4. Presto (extinct): developed by Opera Software, this is a proprietary engine used in the Opera browser up to Opera 12. Browsers
  5. Trident (to be extinct): developed by Microsoft, this is a proprietary engine used by many browsers, of which the best known are the various versions of Internet Explorer up to IE 11.Browsers
  6. WebKit (or AppleWebKit): developed by Apple, this is based on the KHTML engine, used by popular browsers, including Chrome 1–27 and all versions of Safari. Browsers

Blink Browsers 

BRAVECHROMEEDGEOPERAVIVALDI
 Chrome 28 Opera 15 
 Chrome 29 Opera 16 
 Chrome 30 Opera 17 
 Chrome 31 Opera 18 
 Chrome 32 Opera 19 
 Chrome 33 Opera 20 
 Chrome 34 Opera 21 
 Chrome 35 Opera 22 
 Chrome 36 Opera 23 
 Chrome 37 Opera 24 
 Chrome 38 Opera 25 
 Chrome 39 Opera 26 
 Chrome 40 Opera 27 
 Chrome 41 Opera 28 
 Chrome 42 Opera 29 
 Chrome 43 Opera 30 
 Chrome 44 Opera 31 
 Chrome 45 Opera 32 
 Chrome 46 Opera 33 
 Chrome 47 Opera 34 
 Chrome 48 Opera 35 
 Chrome 49 Opera 36Vivaldi 1.0
 Chrome 50 Opera 37Vivaldi 1.1
 Chrome 51 Opera 38Vivaldi 1.2
 Chrome 52 Opera 39Vivaldi 1.3
 Chrome 53 Opera 40Vivaldi 1.4
 Chrome 54 Opera 41Vivaldi 1.5
 Chrome 55 Opera 42Vivaldi 1.6
 Chrome 56 Opera 43Vivaldi 1.7
 Chrome 57 Opera 44Vivaldi 1.8
 Chrome 58 Opera 45Vivaldi 1.9
 Chrome 59 Opera 46Vivaldi 1.10
 Chrome 60 Opera 47Vivaldi 1.11
 Chrome 61 Opera 48Vivaldi 1.12
 Chrome 62 Opera 49Vivaldi 1.13
 Chrome 63 Opera 50 
 Chrome 64 Opera 51Vivaldi 1.14
 Chrome 65 Opera 52Vivaldi 1.15
 Chrome 66 Opera 53 
 Chrome 67 Opera 54 
 Chrome 68 Opera 55 
 Chrome 69 Opera 56Vivaldi 2.0
 Chrome 70 Opera 57Vivaldi 2.1
 Chrome 71 Opera 58Vivaldi 2.2
 Chrome 72  Vivaldi 2.3
 Chrome 73 Opera 60Vivaldi 2.4
 Chrome 74  Vivaldi 2.5
 Chrome 75 Opera 62Vivaldi 2.6
 Chrome 76 Opera 63Vivaldi 2.7
 Chrome 77 Opera 64Vivaldi 2.8
 Chrome 78 Opera 65Vivaldi 2.9
 Chrome 79Edge 79Opera 66Vivaldi 2.10
 Chrome 80Edge 80Opera 67Vivaldi 2.11
 Chrome 81Edge 81Opera 68Vivaldi 3.0
 Chrome 82Edge 82Opera 69Vivaldi 3.1
 Chrome 83Edge 83Opera 70Vivaldi 3.2
 Chrome 85Edge 85Opera 71Vivaldi 3.3
 Chrome 86Edge 86Opera 72Vivaldi 3.4
 Chrome 87Edge 87Opera 73Vivaldi 3.5
 Chrome 88Edge 88Opera 74Vivaldi 3.6
 Chrome 89Edge 89Opera 75Vivaldi 3.7
 Chrome 90Edge 90Opera 76Vivaldi 3.8
Brave 1.26Chrome 91Edge 91Opera 77Vivaldi 4.0
Brave 1.27Chrome 92Edge 92Opera 78Vivaldi 4.1
Brave 1.28Chrome 93Edge 93Opera 79Vivaldi 4.2
Brave 1.29Chrome 94Edge 94  

Browsers Using Microsoft’s Edge::HTML Engines 

EDGE::HTML
Edge 12
Edge 13
Edge 14
Edge 15
Edge 16
Edge 17
Edge 18

Browsers Using Mozilla’s Gecko Engines 

Browsers Using Basic Mozilla Engines
ENGINEFIREFOXFIREFOX ESRMOZILLA/SEAMONKEYNETSCAPE
Gecko 1.0  Mozilla 1.0Netscape 7.0
Gecko 1.4  Mozilla 1.4Netscape 7.1
Gecko 1.7Firefox 1.0 Mozilla 1.7Netscape 7.2, Netscape 8.0–8.13
Gecko 1.8Firefox 1.5 SeaMonkey 1.0
Gecko 1.8.1Firefox 2.0 SeaMonkey 1.1Netscape 9
Gecko 1.9.0Firefox 3.0
Gecko 1.9.1Firefox 3.5 SeaMonkey 2
Gecko 1.9.2Firefox 3.6
Gecko 2.0Firefox 4.0 SeaMonkey 2.1
Gecko 5.0Firefox 5.0 SeaMonkey 2.2
Gecko 6.0Firefox 6.0 SeaMonkey 2.3
Gecko 7.0Firefox 7.0 SeaMonkey 2.4
Gecko 8.0Firefox 8.0 SeaMonkey 2.5
Gecko 9.0Firefox 9.0 SeaMonkey 2.6
Gecko 10.0Firefox 10.0Firefox ESR 10SeaMonkey 2.7
Gecko 11.0Firefox 11.0 SeaMonkey 2.8
Gecko 12.0Firefox 12.0 SeaMonkey 2.9
Gecko 13.0Firefox 13.0 SeaMonkey 2.10
Gecko 14.0Firefox 14.0 SeaMonkey 2.11
Gecko 15.0Firefox 15.0Firefox ESR 17SeaMonkey 2.12
Gecko 16.0Firefox 16.0 SeaMonkey 2.13
Gecko 17.0Firefox 17.0 SeaMonkey 2.14
Gecko 18.0Firefox 18.0 SeaMonkey 2.15
Gecko 19.0Firefox 19.0 SeaMonkey 2.16
Gecko 20.0Firefox 20.0 SeaMonkey 2.17
Gecko 21.0Firefox 21.0 SeaMonkey 2.18
Gecko 22.0Firefox 22.0 SeaMonkey 2.19
Gecko 23.0Firefox 23.0 SeaMonkey 2.20
Gecko 24.0Firefox 24.0Firefox ESR 24SeaMonkey 2.21
Gecko 25.0Firefox 25.0 SeaMonkey 2.22
Gecko 26.0Firefox 26.0 SeaMonkey 2.23
Gecko 27.0Firefox 27.0 SeaMonkey 2.24
Gecko 28.0Firefox 28.0 SeaMonkey 2.25
Gecko 29.0Firefox 29.0 SeaMonkey 2.26
Gecko 30.0Firefox 30.0
Gecko 31.0Firefox 31.0Firefox ESR 31
Gecko 32.0Firefox 32.0 SeaMonkey 2.29
Gecko 33.0Firefox 33.1 SeaMonkey 2.30
Gecko 34.0Firefox 34.0 SeaMonkey 2.31
Gecko 35.0Firefox 35.0 SeaMonkey 2.32
Gecko 36.0Firefox 36.0 SeaMonkey 2.33
Gecko 37.0Firefox 37.0
Gecko 38.0Firefox 38.0Firefox ESR 38SeaMonkey 2.35
Gecko 39.0Firefox 39.0
Gecko 40.0Firefox 40.0
Gecko 41.0Firefox 41.0 SeaMonkey 2.38
Gecko 42.0Firefox 42.0 SeaMonkey 2.39
Gecko 43.0Firefox 43.0 SeaMonkey 2.40
Gecko 44.0Firefox 44.0
Gecko 45.0Firefox 45.0Firefox ESR 45
Gecko 46.0Firefox 46.0
Gecko 47.0Firefox 47.0
Gecko 48.0Firefox 48.0
Gecko 49.0Firefox 49.0 SeaMonkey 2.46
Gecko 50.0Firefox 50.0
Gecko 51.0Firefox 51.0 SeaMonkey 2.48
Gecko 52.0Firefox 52.0Firefox ESR 60–60.9SeaMonkey 2.49
Gecko 53.0Firefox 53.0
Gecko 54.0Firefox 54.0
Gecko 55.0Firefox 55.0
Gecko 56.0Firefox 56.0
Browsers Using Mozilla Non-Quantum Goanna Engines 
ENGINEK-MELEON
Goanna 3.5.0K-Meleon 76.4.4
ENGINEPALE MOON
Goanna 4.1Pale Moon 28
Goanna 4.2Pale Moon 28
Goanna 4.3Pale Moon 28
Goanna 4.4Pale Moon 28.7–28.8
Goanna 4.5Pale Moon 28.9
Goanna 4.5Pale Moon 28.13
Goanna 4.6Pale Moon 28.14
Goanna 4.7Pale Moon 28.15–28.16
Goanna 4.8Pale Moon 29
Browsers Using Mozilla Quantum Engines 
ENGINEFIREFOX,
FIREFOX PORTABLE
FIREFOX ESRSEAMONKEYWATERFOX CURRENTWATERFOX CLASSIC
Gecko 57.0Firefox 57.0
Gecko 58.0Firefox 58.0
Gecko 59.0Firefox 59.0
Gecko 60.0Firefox 60.0Firefox ESR 60–60.9Seamonkey 2.53.1–2.53Waterfox 56.2
Gecko 61.0Firefox 61.0
Gecko 62.0Firefox 62.0
Gecko 63.0Firefox 63.0
Gecko 64.0Firefox 64.0
Gecko 65.0Firefox 65.0
Gecko 66.0Firefox 66.0
Gecko 67.0Firefox 67.0
Gecko 68.0Firefox 68.0Firefox ESR 68.0–68.12 Waterfox 2019.10–2020-10Waterfox 2019.10–2021-09
Gecko 69.0Firefox 69.0
Gecko 70.0Firefox 70.0
Gecko 71.0Firefox 71.0
Gecko 72.0Firefox 72.0
Gecko 73.0Firefox 73.0
Gecko 74.0Firefox 74.0
Gecko 75.0Firefox 75.0
Gecko 76.0Firefox 76.0
Gecko 77.0Firefox 77.0
Gecko 78.0Firefox 78.0Firefox ESR 78.0–78.14 Waterfox G3.0.0–G3.2.6
Gecko 80.0Firefox 80.0
Gecko 81.0Firefox 81.0
Gecko 82.0Firefox 82.0
Gecko 83.0Firefox 83.0
Gecko 84.0Firefox 84.0
Gecko 85.0Firefox 85.0
Gecko 86.0Firefox 86.0
Gecko 87.0Firefox 87.0
Gecko 88.0Firefox 88.0
Gecko 89.0Firefox 89.0
Gecko 90.0Firefox 90.0
Gecko 91.0Firefox 91.0Firefox ESR 91.0–91.1.x
Gecko 92.0Firefox 92.0

Browsers Using Opera’s Presto Engines 

ENGINEOPERA
Presto 1.0Opera 7
Presto ?.?Opera 8
Presto 2.1.1Opera 9
Presto 2.2Opera 10.00–10.10
Presto 2.5Opera 10.5x
Presto 2.6Opera 10.6x
Presto 2.7Opera 11.0x
Presto 2.8Opera 11.1x
Presto 2.9Opera 11.5x
Presto 2.10Opera 11.6x
Presto 2.10Opera 12.0x

Browsers Using Microsoft’s Trident Engines 

Trident is used by IE4–11, MSN Explorer, Netscape 8, most AOL browsers, Avant, Maxthon, SlimBrowser, and many more).

The numbering of Internet Explorer’s browser engine became really strange after IE7: IE8 uses Trident 4, but IE6 uses Trident IV; and IE9 uses Trident 5, but IE7 uses Trident V. Presumably no one at Microsoft knows that IV is 4, or V is 5: the engine for IE8 should have been called Trident VI or Trident 6; and the engine for IE9 should have been called Trident VII or Trident 7.

ENGINEINTERNET EXPLORER
Trident IIE 4.0x
Trident IIIE 5.0x
Trident IIIIE 5.5x
Trident IVIE 6
Trident VIE 7
Trident 4IE 8
Trident 5IE 9
Trident 6IE 10
Trident 7IE 11
Trident 8IE 11 // Windows 10

Browsers Using Apple’s Webkit Engines 

EDGECHROMEOPERAVIVALDI
 Chrome 1  
 Chrome 2  
 Chrome 3  
 Chrome 4  
 Chrome 5  
 Chrome 6  
 Chrome 7  
 Chrome 8  
 Chrome 9  
 Chrome 10  
 Chrome 11  
 Chrome 12  
 Chrome 13  
 Chrome 14  
 Chrome 15  
 Chrome 16  
 Chrome 17  
 Chrome 18  
 Chrome 19  
 Chrome 20  
 Chrome 21  
 Chrome 22  
 Chrome 23  
 Chrome 24  
 Chrome 25  
 Chrome 26  
 Chrome 27  

Apple Safari’s browser engine is based on Konqueror’s KHTML engine, used by Chrome, OmniWeb, Opera (versions 15+), Safari, and Vivaldi.

ENGINESAFARI
WebKit 85Safari 1.0
WebKit 100Safari 1.1
WebKit 125Safari 1.2
WebKit 312Safari 1.3
WebKit 412–419Safari 2.0
WebKit 522–523Safari 3.0
WebKit 525Safari 3.1–3.2
WebKit 526–533.16, 533.17.8, 533.18.5, 533.19.4Safari 4.0
WebKit 533.16, 533.17.8, 533.18.5, 533.19.4, 533.20–534.59Safari 5.0
WebKit 536–537.73.11, 537.78.2, 537.85.17Safari 6.0
WebKit 537.71, 537.73.11, 537.75.14, 537.76.4, 537.77.4, 537.78.2, 537.85.17Safari 7.0
WebKit 538.35.8–600.7.12Safari 8.0
WebKit 601.1.56–601.7.8Safari 9.0
WebKit 602.1.50–602.4.8Safari 10.0
WebKit 603.1.30–603.3.8Safari 10.1
WebKit ?–?Safari 11.x
WebKit ?–?Safari 12.x
WebKit ?–?Safari 13.x
WebKit ?–?Safari 24.x

Identifying Browser Engines

There are a few principles a designer should consider when trying to identify browser engines:

A sample browser sniffer exists which applies the above principles.

 

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